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Meaning / Definition of

Central Bank

Categories: Banking, Economics,

Most countries have a central bank, which issues the country's currency and holds the reserve deposits of other banks in that country. It also either initiates or carries out the country's monetary policy, including keeping tabs on the money supply. In the United States, the 12 regional banks that make up the federal reserve system act as the central bank. This multibank structure was deliberately developed to ensure that no single region of the country could control economic decision making.

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Definition / Meaning of

Price-to-earnings Ratio (P/E)

Categories: Finance,

The price-to-earnings ratio (P/E) is the relationship between a company's earnings and its share price, and is calculated by dividing the current price per share by the earnings per share.A stock's P/E, also known as its multiple, gives you a sense of what you are paying for a stock in relation to its earning power. For example, a stock with a P/E of 30 is trading at a price 30 times higher than its earnings, while one with a P/E of 15 is trading at 15 times its earnings. If earnings falter, there is usually a sell-off, which drives the price down. But if the company is successful, the share price and the P/E can climb even higher. Similarly, a low p/e can be the sign of an undervalued company whose price hasn't caught up with its earnings potential. Or, conversely, a clue that the market considers the company a poor investment risk.Stocks with higher P/Es are typical of companies that are expected to grow rapidly in value. They're often more volatile than stocks with lower P/Es because it can be more difficult for the company's earnings to satisfy investor expectations.The P/E can be calculated two ways. A trailing p/e, the figure reported in newspaper stock tables, uses earnings for the last four quarters. A forward p/e generally uses earnings for the past two quarters and an analyst's projection for the coming two.

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