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Meaning / Definition of

Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO)

Categories: Finance,

CMOs are fixed-income investments backed by mortgages or pools of mortgages. A conventional mortgage-backed security has a single interest rate and maturity date. In contrast, the pool of mortgages in a CMO is divided into four tranches, each with a different interest rate and term. Owners of the first three tranches receive regular interest payments and principal is repaid to reflect the order in which the tranches mature. The fourth tranche is usually a deep-discount zero coupon bond on which interest accrues until maturity, when the full face value is repaid. CMOs usually involve high-quality mortgages or those guaranteed by the government. Their yield may be lower than those of other mortgage-backed investments.However, the way in which they are repaid makes them especially attractive to institutional investors including insurance companies and pension funds. The risk, as with all mortgage-backed securities, is that a change in interest rates can affect the rate of repayment and the market value of the CMO.

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Definition / Meaning of

Money Supply

Categories: Economics,

The money supply is the total amount of liquid or near-liquid assets in the economy. The federal reserve, or the Fed, manages the money supply, trying to prevent either recession or serious inflation by changing the amount of money in circulation. The Fed increases the money supply by buying government bonds in the open market, and decreases the supply by selling these securities.In addition, the Fed can adjust the reserves that banks must maintain, and increase or decrease the rate at which banks can borrow money. This fluctuation in rates gets passed along to consumers and investors as changes in short-term interest rates.The money supply is grouped into four classes of assets, called money aggregates. The narrowest, called M1, includes currency and checking deposits. M2 includes M1, plus assets in money market accounts and small time deposits. M3, also called broad money, includes M2, plus assets in large time deposits, eurodollars, and institution-only money market funds. The biggest group, L, includes M3, plus assets such as private holdings of us savings bonds, short-term us treasury bills, and commercial paper.

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