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Meaning / Definition of

Franchised Monopoly

Categories: Business and Management,

A government-granted monopoly. The most important reason for the government granting a monopoly is in the case of the product or service being a natural monopoly, i.e. unable to sustain more than one producer. This is usually the case when very large economy of scale is needed to make production efficient (so the marginal cost of producing each additional unit is very low). Thus, given the huge scale of production needed for efficiency, it could be that the entire market demand would be fulfilled by a single efficient producer, making it unfeasible to have a second producer in the market. Thus, the government may decide to simply give a producer a monopoly, so that the producer is convinced of the fact that there is adequate market to achieve efficient scale. A government may also choose to grant monopolies in special conditions such as when they want to encourage a specific kinds of innovation (patents are effectively a government-granted monopoly), give preference to a producer who might also be involved in community development activities etc.

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Definition / Meaning of

Weighted Stock Index

Categories: Finance,

In weighted stock indexes, price changes in some stocks have a much greater impact than price changes in others in computing the direction of the overall index. By contrast, in an unweighted index, prices changes in all the stocks have an equal impact.A price weighted index, such as the dow jones industrial average (DJIA), is affected more by the changing prices of higher-priced securities than by changes in the prices of lower-priced securities. Similarly, a market capitalization weighted index, such as the nasdaq composite index, gives more weight to price changes in securities with the highest market values, calculated by multiplying the current price per share by the number of outstanding or floating shares. A capitalization weighted index may also be called a market value weighted index. The theory behind weighting is that price changes in the largest or most expensive securities have a greater impact on the overall economy than price changes in smaller-cap or less expensive stocks. However, some critics argue that strong market performance by the biggest or most expensive stocks can drive an index up, masking stagnant or even declining prices in large segments of the market, and providing a skewed view of the economy.

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