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Meaning / Definition of

Individual Retirement Arrangement (IRA)

Categories: Finance,

An individual retirement arrangement (IRA), which may be set up as either an account or an annuity, allows people with earned income to contribute to a tax-deferred traditional ira or a tax-free roth ira.Your contribution is a portion of your earnings, up to an annual cap, though it can't be more than you earn. The cap is $4,000 for 2006 and 2007, and $5,000 for 2008. If you are 50 or older, you can make an additional catch-up contribution of $1,000 a year.If you open a traditional ira, you usually can't withdraw without penalty before you turn 59 1/2 and you must begin minimum required distributions (MRDs) by April 1 of the year following the year you turn 70 1/2. income taxes figured at your regular rate are due on your earnings and on any contributions you deducted on your tax return in the year you made them.If you qualify for a roth ira because your modified adjusted gross income is less than the ceiling for your filing status, you make after-tax contributions but your withdrawals are free of federal income tax provided you're at least 59 1/2 and your account has been open at least five years. There are no required withdrawals from roth iras.

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Definition / Meaning of

Lead Time

Categories: Business and Management, Marketing, Operation and Production,

the time interval between the start of an activity or process and its completion, for example, the time between ordering goods and their receipt, or between starting manufacturing of a product and its completion in inventory control, the time between placing an order and its arrival on site. Lead time differs from delivery time in that it also includes the time required to place an order and the time it takes to inspect the goods and receive them into the appropriate store. Inventory levels can afford to be lower and orders smaller when purchasing lead times are short. in new product development and manufacturing, the time required to develop a product from concept to market delivery. Lead time increases as a result of the poor sequencing of dependent activities, the lack of availability of resources, poor quality in the component parts, and poor plant layout. The technique of concurrent engineering focuses on the entire concept-to-customer process with the goal of reducing lead time. Companies can gain a competitive advantage by achieving a lead time reduction and so getting products to market faster.

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