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Meaning / Definition of

Money Supply

Categories: Economics,

The money supply is the total amount of liquid or near-liquid assets in the economy. The federal reserve, or the Fed, manages the money supply, trying to prevent either recession or serious inflation by changing the amount of money in circulation. The Fed increases the money supply by buying government bonds in the open market, and decreases the supply by selling these securities.In addition, the Fed can adjust the reserves that banks must maintain, and increase or decrease the rate at which banks can borrow money. This fluctuation in rates gets passed along to consumers and investors as changes in short-term interest rates.The money supply is grouped into four classes of assets, called money aggregates. The narrowest, called M1, includes currency and checking deposits. M2 includes M1, plus assets in money market accounts and small time deposits. M3, also called broad money, includes M2, plus assets in large time deposits, eurodollars, and institution-only money market funds. The biggest group, L, includes M3, plus assets such as private holdings of us savings bonds, short-term us treasury bills, and commercial paper.

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Definition / Meaning of

Sarbanes-Oxley Act Of 2002

Categories: Finance,

Named after its main Congressional sponsors, Senator Paul Sarbanes and representative Michael Oxley, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 introduced new financial practices and reporting requirements, including executive certification of financial reports, plus more stringent corporate governance procedures for publicly traded US companies and added protections for whistleblowers. Also known as the Corporate and Auditing accountability, Responsibility, and Transparency Act, or more colloquially as SarbOx or SOX, the law was passed in response to several high-profile corporate scandals involving accounting fraud and corruption in major Us corporations.The law also created the public company accounting oversight board (PCAOB), a private-sector, nonprofit corporation that regulates and oversees public accounting firms.The law has seen its share of controversy, with opponents arguing that the expense and effort involved in complying with the law reduce shareholder value, and proponents arguing that increased corporate responsibility and transparency far outweigh the costs of compliance.

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