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Meaning / Definition of

Stockholm Syndrome

Categories: Business and Management,

The effect in which hostage victims form emotional attachment or fondness towards their captors. The Syndrome is named after the 1973 'Norrmalmstorg Robbery' - an armed raid on Kreditbanken at Norrmalmstorg in Stockholm, Sweden. The bank's employees were held hostage from 23-28 August, during which time some of the victims became emotionally attached to their captors, even defending them after being freed. The term Stockholm Syndrome was first used by criminologist/psychiatrist Nils Bejerot, when assisting police during the siege, referring to the Syndrome in a news broadcast. It was defined in more detail by psychiatrist Frank Ochberg to aid the management of hostage situations. While Stockholm Syndrome chiefly and originally refers to hostage situations the term extends to other forms of 'traumatic bonding', not necessarily dependent on a hostage situation, more broadly describing the somewhat counter-intuitive tendency among certain folk for strong emotional connections to develop within an abusive relationship. At a slightly milder but nevertheless still very worrying level we see the same principle extending to abusive employment situations and other 'working' relationships, where badly-treated and exploited workers can develop strangely positive feelings towards abusive bosses/employers. Whether driven by fear, dependence, gratitude (for limiting the level of abuse), survival impulse, or various other possible factors, the Stockholm Syndrome remains puzzling and paradoxical at any level, and yet a very real human tendency in certain situations.

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Catch-up Contribution

Categories: Retirement and Pension,

You are entitled to make an annual catch-up contribution to your employer sponsored retirement savings plan and individual retirement account (IRA) if you're 50 or older. The catch-up amounts, which are larger for employer plans than for IRAs, increase from time to time based on the rate of inflation. You are eligible to make catch-up contributions whether or not you have contributed the maximum amount you were eligible for in the past. And if you participate in an employer plan and also put money in an IRA, you are entitled to use both catch-up options.Earnings on catch-up contributions accumulate tax deferred, just as other earnings in your account do. And when your primary contributions are tax deferred, so are your catch-up contributions.health savings accounts (HSAs), which you're eligible to open if you have a high deductible health plan (HDHP), allow catch-up contributions if you're at least 55. Your eligibility to make any contributions to an HSA ends when you turn 65.

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